Anomia: Difficulty in naming or finding/saying words.
Anterior insula: Located in the brain cortex region, contains key nodes within distributed speech-language and viscero-autonomic/social-emotional network.
Aphasia: Disorder resulting from damage to the language portions of the brain that impairs the expression and understanding of language, as well as reading and writing.
Apraxia: Speech disorder in which a person has trouble saying what he/she wants to say correctly and consistently.
Broca’s area: Part of the left frontal cortex, responsible for motor speech production.
Constraint-Induced Therapy: Form of physical therapy that forces the use of the affected side by restraining the unaffected side.
Dysarthria: Motor speech disorder in which muscles of the face, mouth, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or brain injury.
Dysphagia: Difficulty with swallowing or the complete inability to swallow.
Hemorrhagic stroke: Occurs when a blood vessel in part of the brain becomes weak and bursts open, causing blood to leak in the brain.
Ischemic stroke: Occurs when a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain is blocked by a blood clot.
Limbic system: A group of interconnected structures that mediate emotions, learning, and memory.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG): Non-invasive technique used to measure magnetic fields generated by small intracellular electrical currents in neurons of the brain. Provides direct information about the dynamics of evoked and spontaneous neural activity and the location of their sources in the brain.
Mirror Neuron System: System of a special class of brain cells (mirror neurons) that allow humans to “simulate” not just other people’s actions but the intentions and emotions behind those actions. It plays a key role in our ability to empathize and socialize with others.
Neurologic Music Therapy: The therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor function due to neurologic disease of the human nervous system.
Nonpropositional speech: Conventionalized, context-dependent speech that does not involve syntactic parsing or the conscious formulation of new utterances to express a semantic message.
Paraphasia: Type of aphasia in which an incorrect word is substituted for an intended or target word.
Preserved singing: The ability of some people with aphasia to sing with lyrics.
Prosody: The rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech.
Rhythmic auditory stimulation: Therapy in which rhythm functions as a cue to stabilize and enhance the organization of movement.
Rhythmic speech cuing: The use of rhythmic cuing to control the initiation and rate of speech thru cuing and pacing.
Shared Affective Motion Experience: Theory of emotional responses to music proposed by Katie Overy and Istvan Molnar-Szakacs.
Superior temporal gyrus: Located in the temporal lobe, it contains the primary auditory cortex, is responsible for processing sounds, and includes Wernicke’s area – the major area involved in the comprehension of language.
Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance: Uses the playing of musical instruments to exercise and simulate functional movement patterns in motor rehabilitation.
Visuospatial: Visual perception of spatial relationships among objects.