is an electronic bibliographic database providing abstracts and citations to the scholarly literature in the psychological, social, behavioral, and health sciences. The database includes material of relevance to psychologists and professionals in related fields such as psychiatry, management, business, education, social science, neuroscience, law, medicine, and social work. Updated weekly, PsycINFO® provides access to journal articles, books, chapters, and dissertations.
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. 99% of the journals in the database are peer-reviewed, dating from the early 1800s to the present. For a complete list of the journals covered in the database, please view the Journal Coverage List
. Nearly 80% of the database contains journal records that are accepted for coverage if archival, scholarly, peer-reviewed, and regularly published with titles, abstracts, and keywords in English. 30% of the database contains material of European origin, while an additional 12% of the database is from US dissertations.
is produced and copyrighted (c) by the American Psychological Association, all rights reserved.
Major areas of coverage include:
- Applied psychology
- Communication systems
- Developmental psychology
- Educational psychology
- Experimental human and animal psychology
- Psychological and physical disorders
- Physiological psychology and neuroscience
- Professional personnel and issues
- Psychometrics and statistics
- Social psychology
- Social processes and issues
- Sports psychology and leisure
- Treatment and prevention
Examples of Use
- Track the latest research on a particular psychological disorder
and its treatment
- Review the latest findings on aphasia
- Study the impact of organizational structure on job performance
- Keep abreast of latest advances in sports psychology
- Explore cutting-edge research on neural networks and artificial
- Follow new techniques in educational psychology
- Review animal psychology as reflected in behavior patterns
Dates of Coverage
1806 - present. Note: There are less than 146 records with publication dates prior to 1890.
Weekly. Approximately 60,000 new records added per year.
Over 3,454,104 records as of May 2013
Psychological Abstracts, ISSN: 0033-2887
||Visual priming of inverted and rotated objects.
||Knowlton, Barbara J.1; McAuliffe, Sean P.1; Coelho, Chase J.2; Hummel, John E.3
||(1)Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles; (2)Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University; (3)Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
||Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Vol. 35(4), July 2009, pp. 837-848
||Implicit Memory*; Object Recognition*; Priming*; Spatial Organization*
||Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change in minimum exposure duration for identification as a function of prior exposure to an object. Experiment 1 demonstrated that this dependent measure yielded an estimate of predominantly visual priming (i.e., free of name and concept priming). Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that although priming was sensitive to orientation, visual priming was relatively invariant with image inversion (i.e., an image visually primed its inverted counterpart approximately as much as it primed itself). Experiment 4 demonstrated a similar dissociation with images rotated 90Â° off the upright. In all experiments, the difference in the magnitude of priming for identical or rotatedâ“inverted priming conditions was marginal or nonexistent. These results suggest that visual representations that support priming can be relatively insensitive to picture-plane manipulations, although these manipulations have a substantial effect on object identification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
||Barbara J. Knowlton, Department of Psychology, Franz Hall, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563
||American Psychological Association
||Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal; Journal Article
||Empirical Study; Quantitative Study
||Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
||priming; object recognition; implicit memory; rapid serial visual presentation; viewpoint-independent
||2343 Learning & Memory
|| 1. Arguin, M. & Leek, E. C. (2003). Orientation invariance in visual object priming depends on prime-target asynchrony. Perception and Psychophysics, 65, 469-477.
Abstract | Cited by 5
||2. Biederman, I. & Cooper, E. E. (1991a). Priming contour deleted images: Evidence for intermediate representations in visual object recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 393-419.
Abstract | Cited by 136
|| 3. Biederman, I. & Cooper, E. E. (1991b). Evidence for complete translational and reflectional invariance in visual object priming. Perception, 20, 585-593.
Abstract | Cited by 113
|| 4. Biederman, I. & Cooper, E. E. (1992). Size invariance in visual object priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 121-133.
Abstract | Cited by 116
|| 5. Biederman, I. & Gerhardstein, P. C. (1993). Recognizing depth-rotated objects: Evidence and conditions for three-dimensional viewpoint invariance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 1162-1182.
Abstract | Cited by 209
|| 6. Biederman, I. & Gerhardstein, P. C. (1995). Viewpoint-dependent mechanisms in visual object recognition: A critical analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 1506-1514.
Abstract | Cited by 68
|| 7. Burgund, E. D. & Marsolek, C. J. (2000). Viewpoint-invariant and viewpoint-dependent object recognition in dissociable neural subsystems. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 480-489.
Abstract | Cited by 30
|| 8. Edelman, S. (1998). Representation is representation of similarities. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 21, 449-498.
Abstract | Cited by 46
|| 9. Ochsner, K. N., Chiu, C. Y. & Schacter, D. L. (1994). Varieties of priming. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 189-194.
Cited by 13
|| Poggio, T. & Edelman, S. (1990). A network that learns to recognize three-dimensional objects. Nature, 6255, 263-266.
|| 11. Rosch, E., Mervis, C. B., Gray, W. D., Johnson, D. M. & Boyes-Braem, P. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 382-439.
Abstract | Cited by 748
|| 12. Snodgrass, J. G. & Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning, 6, 174-215.
Abstract | Cited by 1181
|| 13. Stankiewicz, B. J. (2002). Empirical evidence for independent dimensions in the visual representation of three-dimensional shape. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 913-932.
Abstract | Cited by 18
|| 14. Stankiewicz, B. J. & Hummel, J. E. (2002). The role of attention in scale- and translation -invariant object recognition. Visual Cognition, 9, 719-739.
Cited by 3
|| 15. Stankiewicz, B. J., Hummel, J. E. & Cooper, E. E. (1998). The role of attention in priming for left–right reflections of object images: Evidence for a dual representation of object shape. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 732-744.
Abstract | Cited by 40
|| 16. Tarr, M. J. (1995). Rotating objects to recognize them: A case study on the role of viewpoint dependency in the recognition of three-dimensional objects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 55-82.
Abstract | Cited by 173
|| 17. Tarr, M. J. & Pinker, S. (1989). Mental rotation and orientation dependence in shape recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 233-283.
Abstract | Cited by 222
|| 18. Pascual-Leone, A. (2001). The brain that plays
music and is changed by it. Annals of the New York Academy of Science,
Cited by 14
|| 18. Tarr, M. J. & Pinker, S. (1990). When does human object recognition use a viewer-centered reference frame. Psychological Science, 1, 253-256.
Abstract | Cited by 56
|Last Revision Date
The following field codes are found in the records of this database. Here they
are listed in alphabetical order by two-letter code.
|AB = Abstract
||JS = Journal Supplement
|AE = AGE
||JV = Journal Volume
|AF = Affiliation
||KW = Keywords
|AN = Accession Number
||LA = Language
| AU = Author
|CA = Corporate Author
||LR = Last Revision Date
|CF = Conference
|| ME = Methodology
|CI = Contact Individual
||NR = Number of References
||NT = Notes
|CQ = Correction Date
||OJ = Other Journal Names
|DA = Dissertation Number
||OP = Other Publisher
|DE = Descriptors
||PB = Publisher
|DO = DOI
|EA = Email Address
= Publication Type
|EI = Electronic ISSN
||PY = Publication Year
FV = Format Availability
= References |
= Format Covered
||RL = Resource Location |
|GI = Grant Information
= Reviewed Work
|IB = ISBN
SD = Supplemental Data
|ID = Identifiers
||SO = Source
|IS = ISSN
= Target Audience
|IT = Issue Title
|| TB = Table of Contents
|JN = Journal Name
TM = Tests & Measures
|JP = Journal Pages
||TI = Title
|JT = Journal Part
||UD = Update
PsycINFO classifications describe broad
areas of the field of psychology. Each includes a 4-digit code that,
when sorted numerically, orders the categories hierarchically by subject
area. All PsycINFO records are classified according to the most specific
category applicable. The classification scheme is shown below.
To search for a specific category, use either the word(s) or the code,
cl=(clinical psychology testing)
To search for everything in a hierarchy, truncate the code, e.g.:
(Note, for very large hierarchies, truncating may slow the search process.)
|| General Psychology
History & Systems
||Psychometrics & Statistics & Methodology
Tests & Testing
Sensory & Motor Testing
Developmental Scales & Schedules
Personality Scales & Inventories
Clinical Psychological Testing
Health Psychology Testing
Occupational & Employment Testing
Consumer Opinion & Attitude Testing
Statistics & Mathematics
Research Methods & Experimental Design
||Human Experimental Psychology
Auditory & Speech Perception
Learning & Memory
Motivation & Emotion
||Animal Experimental & Comparative Psychology
Learning & Motivation
Social & Instinctive Behavior
||Physiological Psychology & Neuroscience
Neuropsychology & Neurology
||Psychology & the Humanities
Literature & Fine Arts Philosophy
Linguistics & Language & Speech
Mass Media Communications
Cognitive & Perceptual Development
Psychosocial & Personality Development
||Social Processes & Social Issues
Social Structure & Organization
Culture & Ethnology
Marriage & Family
Divorce & Remarriage
Childrearing & Child Care
Political Processes & Political Issues
Sex Roles & Women's Issues
Sexual Behavior & Sexual Orientation
Drug & Alcohol Usage (Legal)
Group & Interpersonal Processes
Social Perception & Cognition
Personality Traits & Processes
||Psychological & Physical Disorders
Schizophrenia & Psychotic States
Neuroses & Anxiety Disorders
Behavior Disorders & Antisocial Behavior
Substance Abuse & Addiction
Criminal Behavior & Juvenile Delinquency
Developmental Disorders & Autism
Speech & Language Disorders
Environmental Toxins & Health
Physical & Somatoform & Psychogenic Disorders
Neurological Disorders & Brain Damage
Vision & Hearing & Sensory Disorders
||Health & Mental Health Treatment & Prevention
Psychotherapy & Psychotherapeutic Counseling
Behavior Therapy & Behavior Modification
Group & Family Therapy
Interpersonal & Client Centered & Humanistic Therapy
Clinical Psychotherapeutic Counseling
Self Help Groups
Lay & Paraprofessional & Pastoral Counseling
Art & Music & Movement Therapy
Health Psychology & Medicine
Behavioral & Psychological Treatment of Physical Illness
Medical Treatment of Physical Illness
Promotion & Maintenance of Health & Wellness
Health & Mental Health Services
Community & Social Services
Home Care & Hospice
Nursing Homes & Residential Care
Inpatient & Hospital Services
Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation
Occupational & Vocational Rehabilitation
Speech & Language Therapy
Criminal Rehabilitation & Penology
||Professional Psychological & Health Personnel
Professional Education & Training
Professional Personnel Attitudes & Characteristics
Professional Ethics & Standards & Liability
|| Educational Psychology
Educational Administration & Personnel
Curriculum & Programs & Teaching Methods
Academic Learning & Achievement
Classroom Dynamics & Student Adjustment & Attitudes
Special & Remedial Education
Gifted & Talented
Educational/Vocational Counseling & Student Services
||Industrial & Organizational Psychology
Occupational Interests & Guidance
Personnel Evaluation & Job Performance
Management & Management Training
Personnel Attitudes & Job Satisfaction
Working Conditions & Industrial Safety
||Sport Psychology & Leisure
Recreation & Leisure
Consumer Attitudes & Behavior
Marketing & Advertising
||Engineering & Environmental Psychology
Human Factors Engineering
Lifespace & Institutional Design
Community & Environmental Planning
Environmental Issues & Attitudes
Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems
||Forensic Psychology & Legal Issues
Civil Rights & Civil Law
Criminal Law & Adjudication
Mediation & Conflict Resolution
Police & Legal Personnel
Specifies the format types available for the source document.
Appears in Journal Article, Book, Book Chapter, Dissertation, and Technical
Report records, if available. Format Availability is included in records with
a 2001 release date and later.
Specifies the source document format type actually covered
in the PsycINFO database. Appears in Journal Article, Book, Book Chapter,
Dissertation, and Technical Report records.
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may contain multiple locations.
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Age groups are indexed as follows:
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Neonatal ( birth-1 mo)
Infancy (1-23 MO)
Preschool Age (2-5 yrs)
School Age (6-12 yrs)
Adolescence (13-17 yrs)
Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs)
Thirties (30-39 yrs)
Middle Age (40-64 yrs)
Aged (65 yrs & older)
Very Old (85 yrs & older)
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The Methodology field identifies the specific kind of methodology used in a research study. Methodology may contain the values listed below. American Psychological Association definitions of each methodology are available here.
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Other Journal Names,
Other Journal Names contains variations of the serial title name, resulting from serial title changes occurring in the past or future as compared to the date the item was published.
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Lists references published with journal articles, books, and book chapters.
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Contains supplemental data or other information found either appended to the print source or available on the Internet. May appear for all publication types. Some supplemental data values may be appended with "Available" or "Internet Available."
Data types include the following:
3-D Modeling Images
Tables and Figures
Table of Contents,
The Table of Contents field contains the chapter title, chapter author(s), and chapter pagination within a book or encyclopedia record. Chapters listed in the Table of Contents which are also separately indexed in the PsycINFO database will have the chapter title hyperlinked to that individual chapter record. To go to an individual chapter record, simply click on the hyperlinked title. The Table of Contents appears only with Book, Authored Book, Edited Book and Encyclopedia publication types.
Identifies the intended audience of the document. This field is relevant only to books, chapters, encyclopedias, and encyclopedia entries. The values include the following:
Psychology: Professional & Research
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Tests & Measures,
Contains the names of published tests and measures mentioned in the source
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test or measure name, e.g.:
tm=(wechsler intelligence scale for children)